Job Analysis & Design

Posted on: April 25 2019, By : Shubham Naskar
Job Analysis & Design
A human resource manager understands that for the organization to succeed, questions about what must be done and how it must be done, the best person to do it and how the person can find satisfaction doing it must be given definite and appropriate answer.
Dissecting a job in order to give a description of its component elements can be termed as job analysis (Holst & Pancoast, 1921). It is a detailed and systematic study and presentation of information such as skills, knowledge, abilities and responsibilities relating to the operation of a specific job. This information differentiates one job from another and determines the success of a worker in performing his or her duties. HR consultancy in Mumbaiprovides detailed description on various job profiles.

A job analysis will show:
1. Job oriented activities, which is the description of the exact activities to be performed such as teaching, coaching, facilitating, mentoring and so on.

2.    Who a worker is to report to as well as the relationship of a worker with others which include superiors, colleagues and subordinates.

3.    Behaviors performed during the work such as coordinating, checking, auditing and various decision makings.

4.    Equipment, materials, tools to be used in performing the work such as software, machines etc.

5.    Job context like the physical working conditions, work schedule, organizational context, social context, incentives etc.

6.    Personal data related to the job such as technical skills, training, work experience etc.

7.    Personal attribute like aptitude, physical characteristics, personality, interest, passion, values etc.
For a specific job to be properly analyzed there is need to apply appropriate techniques and methods in gathering information about such job. Recruitment agency in Mumbai use various approach to gather these information. Such techniques and methods include personal observation, personal interview, data collection through questionnaire and review of records.

Some uses and reason for job analysis are listed below:
1    Determination of Labor
2.    Recruitment and selection
3.    Wage and salary administration
4.    Job Re-engineering
5.    Industrial engineering activity
6.    Human engineering activity
7.    Employee training & management development
8.    Performance Appraisal
9.    Health and safety
  Okunade divided job analysis into two subsets:
·  Job Description: this consists of job title, job location, job summary, reporting to, working conditions, job duties and machine used to be used, hazards etc.
·    Job Specification: Qualification, experience, training, skills, responsibilities, emotional characteristics, sensory demands etc.
Having considered job analysis, let’s consider a closely related concept- Job Design.
Davis (1966, as cited in Okunade, 2015) mentioned that job design is the specification of the content, methods and relationship of jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirement as well as the social and personal requirement of the job holder. In other words, it is a deliberate and systematic attempt structure the technical and social aspects of work so as to improve technical efficiency and job satisfaction. HR training in Mumbai gives training keeping in mind the description and specification.
A properly designed job achieves two things simultaneously- one the one hand, it improved performance, productivity and technical efficiency of the organization while on the other hand intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and improved quality of working life of the employee. HR consultancy in Navi Mumbai uses analysis to make an effective job design.
In a bid to integrate the wants or needs of the employee and that of the organization, there is need to pay careful attention to the influence factors , while at the same time approaching the task within a theoretical framework.Education Consultant in Mumbai checks for proper format of the job profile before proceeding further.
Some theoretical framework within which job design can be approached are mentioned below:
  1. The classical approach- Based on the scientific management theory in which the management takes all the decision and the workers responsibility is to perform the instructions received from the management.
      2. The Behavioral approach- Unlike the classical approach, the behavioral approach to job design is not only concern with the technical aspects of jobs but also takes care of the social aspects of jobs. Placement Consultancy in Mumbai considers company with this approach.
In addition to these two major approaches to job design; Okunade (2015) listed five peripheral approaches to job design. They include:
 a.    Job rotation: movement of employees from one task to another.
 b.    Job enlargement: combining previously fragmented tasks into one job.
 c.    Job enrichment: Add greater autonomy and responsibility to a job
 d.    Self managing Teams: self regulating teams who work largely without direct supervision. 
High performance work design: setting up working groups in environments where high levels of performance are required.
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